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Liberty You will find in this section hot News articles which we feel are of national importance to all folks. Zang-Fu Organs is brought to you as a free service from AAJTS.  If you wish to receive weekly Justice Courses or News Articles, join now!



        In Acupuncture theory of care, the treatment is based on many principals.  These principals were developed over thousands of years absent the correlations with the progression of western science.  As physicians desire better results than ever, science has determined the need for this re-investigation of Oriental medicine. 

     Thus relative to the Organs, care revolves around vastly differing principals developed over time.  W will briefly discuss the five elements method later.  However, this investigation found poor results albeit results found with this level of thinking.

     When we treat organs in oriental medicine think of syndromes and further care can be divided into treating the root and the manifestations.  One must also select points based on the differentiation of syndromes and functions of acupoints.

     In oriental medicine the differentiation of syndromes of Zangfu Organs and meridians is used to locate the disease while the 8 Principals methods focus on the treatment of fold, heat and excess or deficiency of disease.  When care is divided at signs and symptoms such as fever, spontaneous sweating, night sweating, insomnia, and amnesia, this is know as Syndrome care.

    The organs of the human body are referred to as Zang Fu as noted above.  Generally there are 6 Zang organs, 6 Fu organs and extra-ordinary Fu Organs.


Text Box: Zang
Lu7, Kid 6
Ht 5, Pc 6
Sp4, Liv 13
Text Box: Extra Fu
Brain,  Gb, Uterus
Bones UB 17
Vessel Lu 9
Text Box: Fu
Gb 34,   St 39
St 36,    UB 40
Li-st37, SJ-UB39 










     Basic Physiology is described by differences between the Zang and fu organs functions.  In Plain Questions Chapter 11, it is written, “Organs store pure essential Qi to draining it off, and for this reason, then can be filled up but not overfilled.”  The six organs transmit water and food without storing hem, ad for this reason the may be oversupplied but cannot be filled up.

     The structural ad functional actives are interrelated by connection through meridians and collaterals.  In other words the meridians and Collaterals act as a nervous system in Liu of nerves per se.  Thus we treat physiological function and pathological changes of Zang-fu organs, tissues, their interrelationships, the physiology and pathology of vital essence, Qi, blood and body fluid, as well as the interrelations with Zang fu organs, meridians and collaterals. 




    The Lungs, which are located in the thorax communicates with and opens into the nose.  The canopy of the Zang Fu Organs the lung occupies the uppermost position.  The Lung has an internal-external connection with the LI Fu Organ  The Main Functions of the Lungs are controlling respiration, domination Qi, dispersing and descending,, dominates the skin and hair and regulated the water passages.

a.      Controls respiration and Dominates Qi.

       As inhalation occurs, we take in clear Qi from the natural environment and exhale waste Qi generated internally by our bodies.  In Plain Questions chapter 5, it is written, “The Qi of heaven is in communication with the lungs”.  The respiratory domination refers to dominating Qi.

     Pectoral Qi is formed from the combination of the essential Qi of water and food, and the clear Qi inhaled by the lung.  It accumulates in the chest, dominates respiration, and is subsequently distributed to the whole body.  In Plain Questions Chapter 10 it is written, “All kinds of Qi belong to the lung.  It is true that if the Lung Qi is normal the passage of Qi through the body is unobstructed demonstrated by smooth and normal breathing.  If Lung Qi is deficient, the signs and symptoms are often feeble speech, weak respiration, and shortness of breath and general lassitude.               

b.      Lung Dominates Distribution and skin and hair health.

     The Lung function of distributing defensive Qi and body fluid warms and moistens the muscles, skin and hair.  In the Miraculous Pivot Chapter 13, it is written, “Qi refers to the substance originating in the upper Jiao, spreads the essentials from water and food, warms the skin, insulate irrigation by fog and dew”.

     In Oriental Medicine, surfaces refer to the location of skin and hair and sweat glands, which act as a protective barrier against invading pathogens.  In oriental medicine “The lung dominates skin and hair: and “the pores are the gate of Qi”.  Thus the pores of the skin have the function of dispersing Qi and regulating respiration.  Thus the ancients believed that Qi was in the sweat (fluids). 

     For example, if a pathogen invades the lung through the skin and hair, this may give rise to symptoms such as aversion to cold, fever, nasal obstruction and cough. This is symptomatic of the lungs failure in dispersing. 

     When the lung is deficient, this means the lung cannot disperse the Qi for the air, water and food fully resulting in the skin turning sallow and porous with susceptibility to catching a cold with spontaneous sweating. 


     The pathway for respiration in Oriental Medicine is the Nose.  When the Lung Qi s normal respiration and olfactory function is well coordinated.

     When the Lung is deficient or diseased, it may cause throat pathology resulting in aphonia and a sore throat.


                         DESCENDING ACTIONS.

     As a general rule, upper Zang-fu organs support descending actions and the lower Zang-fu regulates ascending actions.  Thus the Lung which is the canopy Zang organ, functions to descend Qi to promote Qi and body fluid circulation throughout the body and conduct them downwards.  Reverse actions such as cough and shortness of breath represent a deficiency.

      The Lung regulates water passages for circulation and excretion of water.  When Lung Qi is deficient, there is a loss in the descending functions resulting in dysuria, edema and oliguria.

     In Summary the following are the know accepted categories of Oriental Disease etiologies relative to the Lung.  Wind Cold, Wind Heat, Wind Damp, Wind Dry, Lung Heat, Lung Phlegm heat, Damp Phlegm or Cold Phlegm, Turbid Phlegm, Lou Qi   deficiency, Lung Qi obstruction, Lung Yin deficiency, Lung Dryness, Lung Yin deficiency with deficiency heat.


a)      Regulates opening and the closing of the pores

b)      Dominates the skin and mucus membranes

c)     Regulates water passages and the lungs prefer to be damp

d)    Governs the strength of the voice

e)      Opens to the nose

f)        Helps with the heart to control the autonomic   nervous system

g)      Controls the larynx and sinuses

h)      Controls the diaphragm

i)        Controls those areas where its meridians flow



      The Heart is located in the thorax between the Lungs.  The heart is internally-externally related through its meridian to the small Intestine.  The Heart functions to dominate the blood vessels, house the mind, open into the tongue and manifests on the face.


     This function indicates the heart is the moving force for blood circulation.  Obviously the blood vessels contain the circulating blood.  As far back as “Plain Questions” Chapter 4 notes, “The heart dominates the blood and vessels”, Normal heart Qi maintains the strength for propulsion.


     There are many tiny blood vessels in the face and thus it manifests the health of the heart.  For example if the heat Qi is sound the face will be rosy.  If deficient the face is pale.  Likewise the pulse checks the heart status.  Again if the heart is strong the pulse is regular and strong. Conversely when the heart Qi and blood is deficient the pulse is weak and thready and again the face is pale.  It is written in the Plain Questions Chapter 9, “The glory of the heart is manifested on the face, since the blood frills up the vessels”.


     In Oriental Medicine the spirit and thinking or the mind were associated originally with the heart.  Zang Fu theory held conscious thinking is related to Zang Organs and more specifically to heart physiology.  Human Spirit, consciousness, thinking, memory and sleep are therefore all relative to the heart housing the mind.


   The heart communicates with the tongue internally through the chest meridian.  Thus the heart dominates the sense of taste and speech.  For example, heart blood deficiency may present a pale tongue.  Excess heart fire may present with tongue redness and ulceration.  Stagnated heart blood may give rise to a dark, purple tongue body or purplish tongue spots.



a)      Harbors the spirit

b)      Controls Cerebral Cortex function.

c)      Master of the Mind and emotions

d)      Rules the blood and cardiovascular system and vessels

e)      Opens to the tongue

f)        Controls the Thyroid and Thymus

g)      Controls those areas where its meridians flow



     The pericardium is located in the thorax. It is a membrane surrounding he heart.  In most modern texts it is thought of as a Zang Organ, but some still hold it to be a part of the heart.  Some texts say the 5 Zang organs and some say 6 including the Pericardium. 

     Because the PC protects the heart it is pathogenic Qi invades it prior to the heart.  The ancient thought that the Pericardium was a protective membrane around the heart to protect it from invasion by pathological influence. 

    Pericardium Review: 

a)      Protects the Heart

b)      Is the Prime Minister and does the bidding of the Emperor, the Heart

c)      Controls blood circulation

d)      Controls the emotions

e)      Regulates the sexual function of the kidneys.  The link between emotions and sexuality

f)        Dominates the adrenals

g)      Controls those areas where its meridians flow                                       



      The Spleen is located in the middle Jiao below the diaphragm under the left lung.  The spleen meridian makes its internal-external connection with the stomach.  The Spleens traditional functions are; Governing transportation and transformation, controlling blood, dominates the muscles and limbs, opens into the mouth while manifesting on the lips.

a.  GOVERNING TRANSPORTATION AND TRANSFORMATION                                                           

     Transformation means digestion and absorption.  Transportation implies transmission.  The spleen functions as transportation and transformation of water, food and dampness.

   Thus the spleen functions to digest absorb and subsequently transmit the nutrient substances to the entire body.  The Spleen is considered the main Zang organ for the creation of Qi and Blood.  The main sources are derived from food and water.  If the spleen has Qi deficiency, there will be a loss of full transportation and transformation leading to abdominal distension, poor appetite, lassitude, loose stools, emaciation and malnutrition.

    The Spleen has the function of playing a role in water metabolism.  For example if it is weak then dampness may occur.  The spleen also transports excess fluid of the tissue, organs and meridians.  It guarantees normal organ and tissue suppleness absent retention of dampness.  Diarrhea, phlegm and fluid retention, prolapse of the rectum after prolonged diarrhea, and blurred vision are the signs of non-ascending Spleen Qi.


     Qi as you learned will keep the blood in the vessels.  Spleen Qi also helps keep the blood in the vessels as well as aids circulation preventing extravagation.  Further if the Spleen Qi is normal, then the source for the manufacturing of blood is sound and thus there is ample Qi and blood.  Hemorrhages, blood in the stool, uterine bleeding are all signs that Spleen Qi deficiency exists.


   Proper nourishment ensures well-developed muscles and good motor function for the extremities.  Because the spleen transforms and transmits food, water and  blood, there is a direct correlate in oriental medicine between a healthy spleen and muscles/limbs.  When spleen Qi deficiency exists, there is weakness of the muscles and limbs.  In the Plain Questions Chapter 44 it is written, “The spleen is in charge of the muscles”. 



      With normal Spleen function there is a good appetite and taste.  However there is a failure in Spleen function or is deficient, transpiration and transformation will diminish food processing and intact becomes insufficient resulting in Poor appetite, sticky tongue and mouth with poor taste, occurring due to retention of pathological dampness in the spleen.  The lips manifest the state of the spleen as the mouth is the aperture for the spleen.  Spleen Qi deficiency presents as pale lips due to Qi and Blood deficiency.

     Prototypical Disease Etiologies for the Spleen are Qi, Yang, Blood and Yin deficiencies and Damp Heat as well as dampness.



     The Liver is located in the right Hypochondriac region.  The Liver Meridian connects internally-externally with the Gall Bladder.  Liver functions include blood storage, maintenance of Qi flow, tendon control, manifests on the Nails and opens into the Eye.


      The Liver regulates the volume of blood in circulation as well as blood storage.  Blood is released by the liver relative to daytime activities or vinous movement and increases blood circulation when indicated.  Conversely, when one rests or sleeps, required blood volume decreases, and blood Liver storage increases.  In Plain Questions, the Tenth Chapter, it is written that “The Liver stores blood….the blood circulates in the vessels during exertion and remains in the liver during rest”.   

   Obviously the Liver is closely related to all organ and tissue activity due to the Blood volume regulation.



   The Liver is responsible for maintaining the Free Flow of Qi in the entire body and thus is related to harmonious functions of all the organs including the Liver. 

    Since the liver loves to flourish, it has an aversions to depression.



    Emotional depression stops the Qi from flourishing, and this stops the  Liver from maintaining the free flow of Qi.  Emotional changes which  inhibit the Liver and cause Liver Qi stagnation have the following  manifestations:



     Emotions are integrally related to the heart and Liver.  When Liver function is normal Qi flow flourishes and the Qi and Blood are harmonious and the mind is healthy.  When emotional activity is diseased either with depression or anxiety, Liver Dysfunction occurs resulting in Depression or anxiety.  For example with Liver Qi Stagnation, paranoid depression may occur.  If the Liver is Hyperactive, there can be insomnia, dizziness and vertigo.  Thus there is a vicious cycle.  Aberrant emotions cause liver dysfunction and liver dysfunction causes aberrant emotions. 


     As you learned the spleen controls or causes ascending actions while the stomach the descending actions.  When the liver dysfunction occurs, the ascending and descending functions fail causing a failure in digestion.  Further the Gall Bladder5 is closely related to the Liver.  When there is Liver dysfunction, the is Bile imbalance causing dysfunction of the spleen and stomach resulting in pour digestion and dyspepsia.  Liver dysfunction equates to a failure in the free flow of Qi or Liver Qi Stagnation with symptoms such as distending chest and hypochondria pain, emotional depression and irascibility.

     When the stomach is affected, there is belching, nausea and vomiting due to rebellious reversing Qi.  Remember the stomach has a descending action.  Remember the stomach has a descending action.  When inhibited it rebels with ascending vomit etc known as “attack of the stomach by Liver Qi”.  Spleen Transportation and Transformation are disrupted into abnormal balance resulting in abdominal distention and diarrhea.  This is known as “Disharmony between the Liver and Spleen”. 

    You learned that the heart and lung play a large role in Qi and Blood circulation.  Also the liver supports free flow of Qi to prevent Qi and Blood stagnation.  Liver Dysfunction can cause stagnation of Qi and Blood which leads to stuffiness and pressure in the chest, distending or pricking pain in the hypochondriac region, dysmenorrhea, formation of palpable sub dermal mass.



     The ligaments hold skeletal structures together as well as tendons.  Tendons link the joints and muscles and dominates movement of the Limbs.  In Oriental Medicine when they speak about tendons this is relative to the tendons, ligaments and nerves.  In Oriental Medicine the Liver nourished these tissues.  Absent nourishment these somatic structures weaken.  Signs and symptoms of Liver deficiency is numbness of the limbs and joint or orthopedic biomechanical dysfunction.  Conversely, when the Liver heat invades the somatic (bones, ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage) tissues, signs and symptoms are, convulsion of the four extremities, opisthotonas and clenching of the teeth.

     When Liver blood and yin are deficient these affect the somatic tissues as well as manifesting signs on the nails.  Nails become soft, thin, withered, chipped and even deformed.  In Plain Questions it is written “The Liver controls the tendons and manifests in the nails”.



     In the Miraculous Pivot, Chapter 17 it is written, “The Liver Qi is in communication with the eyes”.  When the Liver is deficient  of Yin and Blood signs and symptoms are dryness of the eyes,  blurred vision, or night blindness.  Liver Meridian Wind heat causes red, painful and swollen eyes.



a)      Spreads and regulate the body Qi

b)      Stores the blood when not in use and moistens the tendons and muscles

c)      Controls all hepato-billary functions

d)      Is the seat of the Soul

e)      Is the General o Strategy

f)        Controls the Pituitary

g)      Opens into the eyes and the nails

h)      Is the producer of the Wei Qi

i)        Controls the rib cage

j)        Dominates the breasts

k)      Controls the areas where its meridians flow




     The kidneys are found bilaterally in the lumbus or the “Home of the Kidneys”.  The kidney Meridian is internal/external connections are with the Bladder.  The Kidney functions to store essence, dominate human reproduction and development, dominate water metabolism, dominate the reception of Qi, produce marrow to nourish the brain, dominate bone, manufacture blood, manifest in the hair, dominate anterior and posterior orifices and open into the ear.


     Kidney essence is divided into two parts: congenital and acquired.  Genetic predisposition or inherited essence and acquired essential essence are derived from food by the spleen and stomach.  There is a reciprocal nourishment between congenital and acquired essence. 

     It is said that congenital essence prepared the material base for acquired essence.  After Birth, acquired essence replenishes congenital essence.



     In Oriental Medicine Kidney Qi is a catchall to explain sexual development and aging.  In Plain Questions Chapter 1 it is written, “At the age of fourteen, a women will begin to menstruate, her Ren (consumption Vessel) Meridian begins to flow, and the Qi in the Chong Meridian begins to flourish.  That is why she is capable of becoming pregnant…At the age of 49, the Qi of the Ren Meridian declines, the Qi of the Chong Meridian becomes weak and scanty, the sexual energy becomes exhausted and menstruation stops, with the result that her body becomes old and she can no longer become pregnant”

     Relative to Men it is written, “At the age of sixteen, the Kidney Qi…becomes even more abundant, his sexual function begins to develop, and he is filled with semen that he can ejaculate.  When he has sexual intercourse with a woman she can have children…At the age of 56, sexual energy begins to decline, the semen becomes scanty and the kidney weak, with the result that all parts of the body begin to age.  At the3 age of sixty-four teeth and hair are gone”.

    Thus the Kidney is considered to be “the congenital foundation”.  It dominates human growth, development and reproduction.

     The essential kidney Qi involves both yin and yang.  Kidney yin is the foundation of body yin fluid, which nourishes and moistens the organs and tissues.

     Kidney Yang is the foundation of body Yang Qi.  It is responsible for warming, maintenance of the organs and tissues as well as organ function.  Because both yin and yang are housed in the kidney, the ancient OM therapists considered it the “house of water and fire”. 

    Essence is yin known as Kidney yin and kidney Qi is kidney Yang.  If kidney yin is deficient, it fails to harmonize yang and becomes excess.  Symptoms are 5-palm heat (heat in the chest, palms and soles) afternoon fever, night sweats, and seminal emission in males and sexual dysfunction in females.  When kidney Yang is deficient, symptoms include, coldness, pain in the lumbar region and knees, cold limbs, lack of spirit, impotence in men and frigidity and infertility in woman.  If kidney deficiency is associated with cold it is known as deficiency of the kidney essence or Qi.



     Ingested water is first taken into the stomach and transmitted by the spleen to the Lung which disperses and descends it (DD).  The portion of  the fluid which reaches the kidney is further subdivided into clear and turbid by the kidney Yang’s Qi activities.  The clear nourishing fluids are transmitted up into the lung from which it is circulated to the organs and body tissues.  Obviously the turbid is excreted through the urinary bladder.  If the kidney is efficient in its balance between yin and yang, then edema or abnormal micturation occurs” 


     It is said that the “Lung is the governor of Qi and the kidney is the root of Qi”.  This refers to the kidney’s relativity with the Lung.  The kidney receives Qi from the Lung by grasping it and assists its descending motion from the lung governor.


     In order to develop the Brain, marrow is produced from essence.  Thus much of intelligence is linked to inheritance in Oriental Medicine.

  Thus the storage of essence in the Kidney produces its sub expense portion to the bone cavities for marrow development, nutrition and subsequent growth.  Further bone strength, weakness and status are dependent on the health of the kidneys.  In Oriental Medicine, if kidney essence is deficient, than the bones become malnourished yielding bone weakness, fractures and mal-development.  Teeth in OM are a surplus of bone.  Thus if the kidney are deficient often the patient may resent with loose or even falling teeth, weakness of the knees and lumbar region, weakness and/or atrophy of the foot, failing or dropping hair, tinites, deafness and genitourinary as well as bowl and bladder problems.  It is written in Chapter 10 of Plain Questions “The kidney dominates bone manifest on the hair”.

    In Oriental Medicine the blood and kidney Qi nourish the hair.  Thus the continued growth or loss of air, its luster or withering, density or scarcity, color and grasping are directly related to the health of the kidney Qi.  Thus during the developing years, the kidney Qi is flourishing and thus the hair is healthy.  In old age as the kidney Qi declines, the hair may fall and turn white.


     The anterior lower orifices are the urethra and genitals which have the function of urination and reproduction.  Posterior orifices refers to the anus relative to the excretion of feces.  Thus kidney Qi deficiency leads to impotence, premature ejaculation, infertility, prolonged diarrhea, prolapse of  the rectum, frequency of micturation, enuresis, anuria, oliguria and constipation.


     When the Kidney Qi is deficient, it fails to ascend to the ear causing tinnitus and or deafness.


II.                          INTRODUCTION TO THE FU ORGANS

     The Gall Bladder is located medially and superiorly to the liver and is both a Fu and Extraordinary Fu Organ.  The Gall Bladders uniqueness comes from the fact that it stores bile and not food or water. 

     The Gall Bladder’s internal-external Meridian connection is with the Liver.  The function of the Gal Bladder is to store and separate bile for digestion and to prepare for dissention. If the Gall Bader has pathology its cases t bile to ascend or reveres and the result s a bitter taste in the mouth, vomiting of bitter fluid, failure in digestion which results in abdomen distension and loose stools. Bile is yellow and very bitter.   

     Because the Gall Bladder and Liver both regulate the bile it is said that both t Liver and Gal Bladder maintain the Free flow of Qi.  Like the Liver, they both are susceptible to emotional upsets resulting in fever, palpitations, insomnia and dream-disturbed sleep.



      The Sanjio is located in the torso divided into three sections; Upper, Middle and Lower  The San Jiao meridian internal-external connection is the pericardium.  Above the diaphragm are the upper Jiao or the Heart and Lungs.  Between the diaphragm the umbilicus is the mid Jiao containing the spleen and Stomach.  Below the umbilicus is the lower Jiao containing the Kidneys, intestines and bladder.  The man functions  this triple organ (It does not exist but explains body metabolism and controls in the terms of 5thousand years ago) is to govern the various forms of Qi

     It is written in the Sixty-Sixth Question Chapter of Classics in Medical Problems “The Sanjio is the ambassador of Yuanqi-It circulates the free Qi and distributes to the five Zang and six fu organs”.  It is also a passage for flow of Yuanqi and body fluid. 

     Yuanqi or Source Qi begins its journey from the kidneys and travels its pathway tough the San Jiao to distribute it to the organs, tissues and entire body.

     The Sanjio is the passageway for water, ids in digestion of food by helping distribution, distributes Qi of the water and food, and warms the extremities.  The San Jiao divisions have unique and distinct functions as well as general similar functions.

     The upper Jiao dominates dispersion and distribution.  This ads the distribution function f the heart and lung, as well as itself distributing the essential Qi of water and food to the whole body.  This arms and nourishes the skin, muscles and their tendons, the bones and regulates the skin and pores.

    The upper Jiao presents an all-pervading vapor like state of the clear and light essential Qi of water and food.  It is written in the Miraculous Pivot Chapter 18, “The upper Jiao is like a fog”.

    The middle Jiao dominates water and food digestion.  Since the spleen ad stomach are the associated middle Jiao organs of digestion, this refers to the domination of absorbing essential substance, transforming body fluids and transforming nutrient substances into blood nutrients.

     The lower Jiao refers to the kidney, bladder and lower intestines.. Again in the 11th chapter of Miraculous Pivot states, “The lower Jiao acts like a drainage ditch”.  The Lower Jiao then dominates the separation of the clear from the turbid and the discharge of fluid and wastes from the body. When there is lower Jiao obstruction, urinary retention, dispread and edema are noted.


 a)      Regulates cellular metabolism

b)      Maintains body temperature

c)      Produces post-natal Qi

d)      The Upper Burner harmonizes the Heart, Pericardium and the Lugs

e)      The Middle Burner harmonizes the Spleen, Stomach, Liver and Gall Bladder

f)        The Lower Burner harmonizes the Kidney, Urinary Bladder, Small and Large Intestine

g)      Regulates the Hypothalamus

h)      Control conduction of body fluids

i)        Controls areas where its meridians flow



1.      The Main Sanjio functions are?

a.       Govern various forms of Qi

b.      Serve as the passage for Qi Flow

c.       Serve as pathway for body fluid

d.      None of the above

e.       All of the above 


2.      The middle Jiao

a.       Digest food

b.      Absorb essential substances

c.       Evaporate body fluids

d.      Transform nutrient substances into the blood

e.       All of the above


3.      The Sanjio is a

a.       Extra Fu Organ

b.      Fu Organ

c.       Zang Organ

d.      Not n organ in OM

e.       None of the above 


4.      The Sanjio is internally-externally related to

a.       Pc

b.      Sp

c.       Lu

d.      Ht

e.       Kid 


5.      The Aqueduct is considered part of

a.       SJ

b.      Pc

c.       Lu

d.      Kid

e.       Lower Jiao.


            VII THE STOMACH          

     The Stomach is located in the epigastrum.  As you remember from your Western Anatomy the esophagus above connects with the stomach and below with the small intestine. 

     The cardiac sphincter, called Shangwan is the upper valve for the stomach inlet and the Pylorus valve, the lower outlet is known as the Iowan.  Thus the Shangwan, Xiawan and Zhangwan make up the epigastrum. 

     The stomach is connected internally externally through the meridian with the spleen.  Stomach function is to receive food as well as the decomposition of food.  For example the food enters the mouth, issues in the esophagus to the stomach for decomposition and subsequent transportation Ren to the intestine.  Essential elements are transported and transferred by the spleen to the entire body.  Together, the spleen and stomach are known as acquired foundations. 

     When Stomach function is normal its Qi descends.  If the stomach is disrupted, the descending function reverses and the patient presents with a loss of appetite, distending pain in the epigastria, nausea and vomiting.    


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