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LibertyYou will find in this section a review I wrote for my Alma Mater so students could review when on the road, away from their books, but have their cell phone internet connections or internet connections in hotels etc.

    It is written in the Miraculous Pivot, chapter 13, “When the middle jiao receives food essence it will transform it into red fluid which is called blood”.  Blood in Oriental Medicine is thought to circulate continuously throughout the body, nourishing, maintaining and moistening various body activities.  In Traditional Oriental Medicine Blood moves through the Meridians as well as blood vessels.  It is the Qi, which is thought to maintain the integrity of the system and keep blood in its structures.  In Traditional Oriental Medicine no accurate body anatomy is assumed nor cared about.  System utility was the determinant of care.  Differential Diagnosis and pattern recognition are made through interdependency of the Nostalgic Organs and systems with a subsequent treatment.  For example in Traditional Oriental Medicine Blood circulates, but is not clear nor need be clear what internal path was traversed.   It is the function of the system, which is checked for harmony.  Does the blood flow harmoniously, is it stagnant or blocked and so forth.  In Oriental Medicine Blood is a liquid considered as Yin Substance. 

         As we stated in the introduction Qi transforms food in the Stomach and Spleen to blood and other nutrients!  It is written in Miraculous Pivot chapter 71, “YingQi flows the vessel to be transformed into blood”.  Although the entire system will be delineated a bit later, in summary food enters the Stomach, which receives the food and “ripens” it so the Spleen can distill it to a refined and purified essence.  The Spleen Qi then transports this essence upwards to the Lungs.  It is during this upward transportation that Nutritive Qi begins to turn the essence into Blood.  This transformation is complete once the essence reaches the Lungs for combination with air, which has been described as “Clear Air” (O2).  The blood is thought to then circulate through the body by Heart Qi and coordinated movement of the Qi of the Chest.  Blood is thought to be a combination of food essence and kidney essence.  It is written in Zang’s General Medicine “If blood is not consumed, it turns into essence in the Kidney; if essence does not leak out, it is transformed into blood in the liver”. 

         Clearly, this bears no resemblance to eight-grade frog dissection, nor college level pig dissection nor human anatomy or physiology.  Yet the treatments are renowned for success.  Thus, for the first time in mankind’s experiential existence, even a western medical doctor should be able to recite Nostalgic Medicine quite rudimentary as taught in this book.  If you are an MD you should within a minimum of time grasp the concepts of Oriental Medicine and then the scientific correlate.  If not, you as a healer may risk the chance at a loss of thousands of years of clinical care of human beings absent inorganic drugs or surgery.  You to will be able to heal or render care when modern medicine fails you, or until science answers the clinical care needs of the particular human disharmony.       

         Oriental Medicine denotes three specific Nostalgic Organs, which have intercontroling relationships with the Blood.  They are the Heart, Liver and the Spleen.  Again, the Heart is responsible for smooth, harmonious and continuous circulation of the blood throughout the body.  In Oriental Medicine it is said that the “Heart Rules the Blood”.  The Heart Qi is the propelling force for blood circulation.  The Liver is thought to store the blood during inactivity.  In O.M. the Liver is said to regulate quiescent Blood.  The Spleen in O.M. was denoted as the governor of the Blood.  It was their concept that the Spleen Qi keep’s the blood within its vessels.  Qi is the commander of Blood, and Blood is the mother of Qi.             

         Please realize that as all cultures developed, they guarded their way of life.  Interwoven in much of today’s western society are the Judeo-Christian religions.  Muslim’s Americanized with the United States recognize the similarities in our cultures, religions and similar rooted heritage’s.  For that matter science might dictate we are the same since we evolved through the ameba’s survival and we all evolved from mother earth.             

         Early religion was based on the Concept that God wished to share thinking.  He created the universe and life with his two best attributes divided into spirits/souls, man and women.  Some believe if a man meets his same other half (soul mate), that when they pass they will be united with god.  Others later from this religion developed three religions based on History; Judaism, Judeo-Christian and Muslim.  The difference is that other than prayer, western medicine has eliminated any religious connotations, which is prudent, cautious, guarantees proper care no matter the religious persuasion of the patient.  This is all part of the Hippocratic oath including “First do no harm”.    

    The relativity of Qi and blood are dynamic.  Qi makes the blood, moves and also holds the blood in dynamic fashion as blood has nourished the tissues and organs, which create Qi.   Qi is the commander of the blood while blood is the mother of Qi.  A family value system is also interwoven within the cultural development of Oriental Medical Arts. 

         Unfortunately Traditional Oriental Medicine contains philosophical/religious connotations, which cause practitioners to reject scientific evolution.  God is Qi.  Qi is life.  There was man and woman, Yin and Yang; there was night and day, external, internal, cold and warm, acute and chronic, sudden onset, slow progression of pathology.  Relative to signs and symptoms Yin and Yang, restless and quiet, Dry and wet, hard and soft, excitement and inhibition, rapidity and slowness, transformation and conservation, Jing and Qi, Deficiency Qi and Stagnant Qi, Blood and Shen; Yin and Yang.  Everywhere in Oriental Medicine are the variables of Yin and Yang, negative and positive.  However and again, their culture presently rejects linear though in favor of a universal flowing and harmony between Yin and Yang and as one enlarges the other may absorb and except change.  If there is a disharmony within Yin and Yang Oriental Medicine was to harmonize.  Thus, throughout our review of Acupuncture and Herbology, scientific description of these cultural aspects of the medical arts will demonstrate how to bridge the gap between the O.M.-clinical positive results, and, the medical community.  This examiner cannot except that a medical physician (MD) could not master the understanding of O.M. and help add acupuncture and Herbology within the Medical Curriculum.  Finally, through the study of this work and future research, expectations will be defined with known expected results from therapies.    

         The following three passages by the ancients summarize Blood Functions.  It is written in classic on Medical Problems chapter 22, “Blood dominates nourishing and moistening.”  It is written in Plain Questions Chapter 10, “when the liver receives blood, it gives rise to vision, when the feet receive blood they are capable of walking; when the palms receive blood they are capable of holding; and hen the fingers receive blood they are capable of grasping”.  It is further written in chapter 26 of Plain Questions “Qi and blood are the foundation for human mental activities”.  Finally it is written in Miraculous Pivot, chapter 47, “When the blood is in harmony…the tendons and bones will be strong and the joints will function smoothly”.  Deficiency of blood may give rise to impaired vision, dryness of eyes, motor impairment, joint dysfunction, numbness of the extremities and itchy dry skin.  Thus the blood nourishes and moistens, makes strong tendons, bones and joints and is the material foundation for mental activities. 

         Please realize that many of the authors of OM especially Herbology, practice western medicine yet only present their version translations of out of date original TOM with no regard for your practice; keeping you an alterative medical caregiver vs. a modern doctor of oriental medicine able to convert traditional observation patterns as written by the ancients in the language of the 21st century.             


          The Arterial System of Oriental Medicine is demonstrated below: Blood that is in circulation consists of plasma (fluid portion-look for the discussion of Oriental Diagnosis and ramifications of fluids) and the formed elements.  Plasma whole blood volume is approximately 55% to 60%.  Of course the formed elements are the red blood cells, or erythrocytes; the white blood cells, or leukocytes; and the blood platelets.  Erythrocyte counts vary according to circadian rhythms with a slight fluctuation of erythrocytes during the day; it is lowest during sleep, rises on awakening, and continues to rise during the rest of the day.  Persons living at high altitudes usually have a higher erythrocyte count than do those living at sea level.  High erythrocyte counts also occur after muscular exercise, emotional excitement, and increased atmospheric temperature.  These are temporary changes, resulting from a flow of a more concentrated blood from the spleen.   Harmoniously the Spleen is the Governor of the Blood in Traditional Oriental Medicine.  How did the ancients know this five hundred years ago?  Further, any condition, which tends to lower the oxygen content of the blood cause an increase in the number of erythrocytes.  Conversely, any condition that increases the oxygen of the blood causes a decrease in erythrocyte count.  Thus, pathologically, a decrease or deficiency of erythrocyte count (deficiency Qi Spleen) is called anemia which there is either a lowered count or a subnormal concentration of hemoglobin (Fluid deficiency).   The ancients gave us the San Juan.  How, so long ago, did they understand the fluids after being refined or transformed and transported from the spleen would be oxygenated (fresh air) by the lungs and regulated by the kidneys.  There nostalgic system indeed works consistently with Western Medicine when Scientific Method is applied absent any bias scientific advances.     

          Excessive blood loss (Qi holds blood in vessels) is prevented by the clotting mechanism.  Whole blood-Formed elements = Plasma.  Whole Blood- (Formed elements + Clotting factors) Serum and Plasma-Clotting factors=Serum.  Blood plasma is 90 to 92% water.  This gives blood its physiologic importance as water is the medium in which the water-soluble and water-dispersible substances are carried; it also is needed for maintaining blood pressure, osmotic relations, and heat regulation.  Because water has a high specific heat, high heat conductivity and high latent heat of evaporation, it has excellent heat-storage properties; i.e., more calories of heat are required to raise the temperature of water a given number of degrees than for most fluids.  Its high conductivity results in its rapid removal of heat from the interior of the body by conducting throughout the water in all the soft tissues and body fluids, as well as in the blood.                

         Finally, a great deal of heat is lost through evaporation from skin and lungs, since the water comes largely from the blood plasma.  From this blood plasma, of course, all secretions, as well as the interstitial fluid, are derived.  The volume of blood in an adult’s body is roughly 5 liters, of which about 3 liters are plasma.            

         The red blood cells, formed in bone marrow are also known as erythrocytes.  Major sites for erythropoietic tissue, was found to be in the bone marrow of the pelvis, spine, ribs, scapulas, and proximal ends of the bonds of the extremity.  Following the injection of 59 Fe isotopic tracer scanned by scintillation counter, neither the liver nor the spleen accumulated sufficient iron to be visualized.    The control of the production of erythrocytes depends on a hematopoietic hormone, erythropoietin, and a “maturation factor,’ known as Vitamin B12.   The Intrinsic factor in gastric juice causes absorption of B12, the extrinsic factor.  In addition to these factors, adequate dietary protein, folic acid, pyridoxine, niacin, and ascorbic acid, available iron salts, traces of copper and cobalt are require for normal erythropoises.  Direct from dietary protein, amino acids derived, form alpha and beta chain polypeptide chains in adult hemoglobin A.  Type A is made up of a high content of histadine and lysine and a smaller amount of isoleucine.   

         Heme, a prosthetic group on Hemoglobin, is to each of four subunits, the two alpha and two beta-polypeptide chains.  This Heme plays an important role in pigmentary properties (Iron containing pigment) and chief respiratory functions whereas the Globulin carries the carbon dioxide.  It has the power to unit with atmospheric oxygen, forming oxyhemoglobin.  At the level of the alveoli of the lungs, surrounding capillaries transport oxygen in the arterial blood to the skin, muscles and tissues, where par of it is released, and the venous blood, somewhat depleted of its oxygen supply, returns to the lungs for oxygenation.   

         Homeostasis, the arrest of an escape of blood, is regulated by three body mechanisms.  The vascular reaction, a contraction of the severed end of small blood vessels, the formation of a platelet thrombus at the sit of the damage (or acupuncture insertion), and blood coagulation or clotting.  The platelet thrombus or “white colt” disintegrates, liberating serotonin (tryptophan), which aids in the vascular reaction.  Even while this system is regaining control the lost blood is beginning to coagulate.  Blood coagulation occurs due to the following categories, Formation of autoprothrombin C (F-Xa, thrombokinase, Stuart factor), Formation of thrombin and formation of fibrin.


    MILLIGRAMS per 100 ml

    Potassium                                                                20

    Sodium                                                                     25

    Magnesium                                                               6.6

    Calcium                                                                    Small amount

    ENZYMES   Unites per 100 ml. Serum
    Amylase, Somogyi                                                                       80-160

    Acid phosphatase,  Butman                                                            0.5-2

    Acid phosphatase, King                                                                 1.4-4.5

    Alkaline phosphatase Bodansky units                                             

                    Adult                                                                                 2-3.5

                   Child                                                                                    5-14

    Alkaline phosphatase King units                                             

                    Adult                                                                      5-10                                Child                                                                         15-20

    Cholinesterase                                                                                   39-51

    Glutamate oxaloacete transaminase                                                 39-51

                    Adult                                                                         4-40 per ml

                    Infants                                                                  13-120 per ml

    Glutamate pyruvate transaminase                                 

                     Adult                                                                     5-30 per ml

                    Infants                                                                  15-90 per ml

    Lactic dehydrogenase                                                        200-690 per ml.

    Phosphoglucomutase                                                                      19-84

    Phosphohexoisomerase                                                                      14-28


    ACTH                                                                     15 ug. Per 100 ml/blood
    Estrogen (estradiol) during pregnancy                .2-0.5 ug. Per 100 ml blood


                    Adult Male                                         below 5 ng. Per ml/plasma

                   Child                                              over 10 ng   per ml/plasma

    17-Hydroxycorticosteriods                              6-44 ug. Per 100 ml/plasma

    Insulin                                                     6-26 nu per ml/plasma or serum

    Progesterone during pregnancy                           530 ug. Per 100 ml/plasma


                    Adult Male                                  er 0.30 ug. Per 100 ml/plasma

                    Adult Female                         below 0.10 ug per 100 ml/plasma


                    Total                                                 6-12 ug. Per 100 ml/serum

                    Free                                                   0.8-7.4 ug per 100 ml/serum

    Tri-iodothyronine                                          70-90 ng. per 100 ml/serum    


    A (as carotene)                                                   15-60 ug. Per 100 ml/serum

    B12                                                                350-750 ug. Per 100 ml/serum

    Biotin                                                                    1.2 ug per 100 ml/blood

    Ascorbic acid            6 mg per 100 ml/blood   0.1-1.7 mg per 100 ml/plasma

    D (asD2)                                                           .8 ug. Per 100 ml/plasma

    E                                                                0.9-1.9 mg per 100ml/plasma

    Niacin                                                         0.6 mg per 100 ml/blood

    Pantothenic acid                                                  30 ug per 100 ml/blood

    Folic acid                                                          3.4 ug per 100 ml/blood

    Riboflavin                                                  .6-3.7 ug per 100 ml/plasma

    Thiamin                                                      7.6-8.9 ug per 100 ml/blood

    Thiamin + Cocarboxylase                         10 ug per 100 ml/blood

    MISCELLANEOUS                     milligrams per 100 ml

    Bromide (serum)                                                                            0.252

    Copper (plasma or serum)                                                         100-200 ug

    Fluoride (whole blood)                                                                      0.28

    Iodine (protein bound) (plasma or serum)                              0.0004-.0008

    Lead (whole blood)                                                                50 ug

    Sialic acid (serum)         

            60 (adults)

           40 (infants)


    1.             The Blood is made of

    a.             Kidney essence

    b.             Ying Qi

    c.              Food essence

    d.             Wei Qi

    e.              A, B and C

    2.             Blood is transformed from

    a.             Food essence

    b.             Ying Qi

    c.              Kidney essence

    d.             Wei Qi

    e.              A, B and C 

    3.             Blood vessel circulation depends on

    a.             Heart

    b.             Liver

    c.              Spleen

    d.             Uterus

    e.              A and C 

    4.             In Oriental Medicine a formation of  Internal organ enlargement or tumor was thought to be caused by

    a.             Blood stasis

    b.             Wind Cold

    c.              Wind Heat

    d.             Rebellious Qi

    e.              Yin deficiency 

    5.             Which Organ stores Blood?

    a.             Uterus

    b.             Blood Vessels

    c.              Liver

    d.             Heart

    e.              Kidney 

    6.             Which Organ is the motive force for blood circulation?

    a.             Liver

    b.             Kidney

    c.              Spleen

    d.             Heart

    e.              Chong 

    7.             Which organ regulates the volume of  blood in circulation?

    a.             Heart

    b.             Kidney

    c.              Liver

    d.             Spleen

    e.              All of the above. 

    8.             Which organ prevents extravasations and  keeps the blood within the vessels?

    a.             Liver

    b.             Spleen

    c.              Heart

    d.             Kidney

    e.              Uterus 

    9.             Body fluid functions are

    a.             Nourishing

    b.             Checking

    c.              Protecting

    d.             Warming

    e.              Cooling 

    10.        A dark complexion absent brightness  accompanied by scaly skin indicates?

    a.             Wind cold

    b.             Yang excess

    c.              Yin deficiency

    d.             Rebellious Qi

    e.              Blood Stagnation 

    11.        Which of the following are important constitutes of the blood in the post-absorptive state?

    a.             Enzymes

    b.             Hormones

    c.              Vitamins

    d.             Minerals

    e.              All of the Above



© & TM 1998 American Academy for Justice Through Science. All rights reserved.

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