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LibertyYou will find in this section hot information on Nostalgic Medicine which we feel are of national importance to all folks. The InfoJustice Journal is brought to you as a free service and reference for students of Oriental Medicine.


     In Oriental Medicine, it is the life force and harmony of all your living tissues, which is reviewed in the case of disease.  Life force is known as Qi.  There are four basic types of Qi named by their theoretical existence relative to observed body function.  However martial artists worldwide have noted an interesting phenomenon.  By concentrating and controlling their adrenal glands and other processes of instant energy through the concept of Qi, brought gratification in times of competition and most rewarding to the audience.  This is a universal experienced by mankind now for several thousand years.

      Essentially Qi protects the body from External Pernicious Influences.  Qi is the source of harmonious transformations in the body.  Qi has a transformative function as ingestion of foods are transformed into other substances such as Blood, Glandular Secretions, Qi itself, peptides, hormones, interstitial fluids, tears, sweat, metabolism and bi-products of catabolism and products of elimination.  Oxygen is exchanged in the lungs and is a source of Qi.  This Wei Qi or Protective Qi would be likened to the human humeral immune response as it pertains to the lymphatic system and spleen in modern medicine.  It circulates throughout the body, regulates sweat glands and pores, moistens and protects the skin and hair much as the hypothalamus regulates unconscious function in Modern Medicine.  In Oriental Medicine this is known as the most Yang manifestation of Qi in the body (Wei Qi).

      Qi governs the retention of the body’s Substances and Organs.  Qi keeps the blood in the vessels and prevents excessive loss of bodily fluids such as sweat and saliva.  Qi is thought to maintain the normal heat in the body. 

      Obviously today, Oriental Medical Practitioners understand the science of temperature regulation.  However, to achieve the repeatable results attained by quality acupuncturists, we must understand the traditional ways of the ancients.  We are harmonizing today’s science with the positive benefits of Oriental Medicine absent the abortion of a reproducible form of care, which has worked for 2,500.  Thus Traditional Oriental Medicine used Qi forms as well as the Sanjio, which you will study later to explain harmonious temperature regulation;   

     Qi has independent functions named by an Oriental Medical organ.  Thus Heart Qi or Spleen Qi has distinct functional activities.  Meridian Qi is thought to be channel pathways through which Qi flows among the Organs and the human body maintaining harmony (homeostasis).  Acupuncturists’ attempt to maintain the harmony of the Body through needling techniques affecting the nervous system (e.g., One never needles into any type of nerve as it can cause severe complications... The acupoints are read by the nervous system...) which affects direct controls and indirect control through peptides, hormones, glandular secretions and so forth.    

     Qi Nutrients or Nutritive Qi, the essence derived from ingestion of oxygen and food, is transformed into blood and essential nutrients are transported throughout the body.  

     Ancestral Qi is thought to regulate the rhythmic movements of the heart and respiration, as well as the movement of Blood.  It is likened to the hypothalamus regulating unconscious body process though the sympathetic, parasympathetic and specific heart nodes.  In Oriental Medicine it is called the Qi of the chest or Zong Qi.  This is reference to the Lungs, the Heart, the Blood, respiration, and control of all factors so they are in harmony.  

     In summary, Qi functions include Transferring, Transporting, Holding, Raising, Protecting and Warming in Oriental Medicine.  Of course these are easily likened to basic metabolism, basal metabolic rate, and basic physiology.   

In-depth Qi Differentiation

      Qi is differentiated relative to its source, function and distribution.  Basically there is Yuanqi, Zongqi, Yingqi and Weiqi as you already learned.  The following is an in-depth discussion of Qi. 

1.     Yuanqi (Primary Qi) is derived from congenital essence and inherited from the parents.  Thus the none congenital or primary Qi.  There is a reciprocal function between the congenital and inherited Qi in that they are dependent on each other for their production and nourishment.  Congenital Qi promotes acquired Qi, which then nourishes congenital Qi.  This Yuanqi is supplemented and nourished by the Qi obtained after birth from food essence.  Yuanqi is rooted in the kidney and spleen to the body by the Sanjio to stimulate and promote the functional activates of the Zang-fu organs and tissues.  If there is Yuanqi deficiency pathological changes occur.

2.     Zongqi is stored in the chest and is therefore called pectoral Qi.  Qi is taken in by the lung and combined with Qi transformed from food essence produced by the stomach and spleen.  The two main functions follow:

a.      Zongqi aids the lung respiratory function and the strength of the spleen.

b.     Zongqi ids the heart in the circulation of Qi and blood, the regulation of temperature, and the motor ability of the limbs and torso.

3.     Yingqi (nutrient Qi) is derived from food essence produced by the spleen and stomach and circulates in the vessels.  Yingqi not only circulates with blood but aids in its production.

4.     Weiqi (defensive Qi) Weiqi functions are hypothalamic in scope.  It is derived from food essence, but circulates outside the blood vessels to protect muscular surfaces, control the openings and closing of pores, moisten skin and hair and to control body temperature.  Its principal function is to defend the body against exogenous pathological factors.

5.     Zhenqi (Vital Qi) is Meridian Qi.  It is written in Plain Questions “Zhenqi (vital Qi) means the Qi of the meridians”.  Thus the meridian Qi aids the functions of the organs, tissues, blood and entire body.



1.     There are six essential Qi factors, which are interrelated and supportive.  These are Promoting, Warming, and Defensive Resistance to disease, controlling, Harmonious transformation and Nourishing.  The promotion of growth, repair, and proper physiological functions are related to Qi.

2.     It is written in the Classic on Medical Problems (21) “Qi dominates warming”.  It is further written in the Miraculous Pivot, Chapter 47 that “Weiqi warms muscles”.  The Qi has a warming function.

3.     It is written in Plain Questions Chapter 72, “The existence of the antipathogenic Qi in the interior prevents the pathogenic factor from invading”.  Thus Qi acts as the hypothalamus and Immune System.  Qi resists pathogenic exogenous invasion as well as combating existing disease and aiding recovery.

4.     Qi nourishes the body in the form of YingQi; the nutrient substance in food.  It nourishes the entire body.

5.     Control.  Qi controls and regulates metabolic function and key body functions.


     Qi flows through the meridians, the organs, and tissues and reaches all aspects of the body.  In fact Qi can be found to be of greatest quantity during various times of the day.  The following chart simplifies Qi flow through the meridians never ending until death, though interrupted, stagnated, reversed or accelerated due to disease.


            INTERNAL                                                               EXTERNAL

3-5am                                                                                                             5-7

Lung                                       Large Intestine

7-9                                                                                                             9-11

Spleen                                      Stomach

11-1                                                                                                         1-3

Heart                                       Small Intestine

3-5                                                                                                             5-7

Kidney                                  Urinary Bladder

7-9                                                                                                             9-11

Pericardium                              San Jiao

1-3                                              11-1

Liver                                         Gall Bladder



    In Oriental Medicine one mode of pathologies come from abnormal Qi activity.  The normal movement of Qi circulation in the body is ascending, descending, outward and inward movement.  Dysfunction can occur when there is abnormal Qi movement.  The normal movement of Qi maintains the functional activities of the Zang-fu organs and meridians, and the relationships between the Zang-fu organs, meridians, Qi, blood, yin and yang.  For example, if the normal stomach Qi fails to descend and spleen Qi fails to ascend, the clear yang will not be disseminated, acquired essence is not stored, and nutrient Qi cannot be received, and numerous diseases are thought to follow.



      Qi disharmonies are broken down into four basic categories in Oriental Medicine.  These are Deficient Qi, Collapsed Qi (aka, Sinking Qi Syndrome), Stagnant Qi, and Rebellious Qi(Qi Perversion Syndrome). 

     Qi Deficiency is insufficient to sustain any of the five Qi functions.   Qi is thought to be deficient within the human body when the five fundamental Qi functions of transporting transforming, holding, raising, and warming, and protecting are in disharmony.  Further Qi Deficiency is associated with deficiency of any of the types of Qi such as Deficient Protective Qi (Humeral Immune Response) one may develop signs and symptoms such as low resistance to the common cold.  Frequent colds and spontaneous sweating are indicative of Deficient Protective Qi.               

     Qi Deficiency can affect the entire system.  The signs and symptoms associated with general Qi Deficiency are a lack in desire for action/movement or lethargy, Dizziness, blurring of vision, spontaneous sweating worse on exertion or movement; thus the lethargy.  The Tongue Diagnosis reveals a pale tongue with deficiency pulse.   Finally Qi Deficiency is used to describe that state of a Deficient Qi Organ or Deficiency of specific Organ Qi.   Since the kidney is the Ruler of water, Kidney Qi Deficiency might be accompanied with incontinence or spermmatorhea.  Qi like everything has a Yin and Yang aspect.  Later when you learn to Diagnose through combined Western/Oriental Medicine, Deficiency and Excess are important distinguishing categories of the Eight Principal System. 

     When the normal flow of Qi is disturbed, slowed or stopped the situation was described as Stagnant Qi.  If Qi is Stagnant, it can disturb the harmony of the Organs.   Since the Lungs rule Qi, then when Qi becomes stagnant within the Lungs, than signs and symptoms are associated with Coughing and dyspnea.  If Qi is Stagnant in the Liver, abdominal distention and distention of the rib cage occurs as the Liver stores blood.  If there is a disturbance in flow the Liver over-engorges.  When Stagnation occurs, this generally refers to accumulation of blood in one of the organs discussed or due to obstruction of blood circulation or extravagated blood, which has not been dispersed or expelled from an organ. 

     Generalized signs and symptoms are Pain, ecchymosis or petechial hemorrhages, and masses or tumors.  Etiological events included abrasion and contusions, hemorrhage, pathogenic invasion of the blood, or even deficiency Qi.        

     As you learned above when this Qi goes the wrong direction compared with that described as normal, it is known as Rebellious Qi.  The most common example is Stomach Qi.  Stomach Qi descends.  Thus if Stomach Qi is rebellious or perverted, the signs and symptoms would be vomiting, nausea, hiccups and belching.  This is usually the result of phlegm in the stomach or food poisoning, invasion of the stomach by exogenous pathogenic factors.  Rebellious Lung Qi is associated with coughing and asthmatic breathing.  Perversion of Qi relative to the Liver causes headache, vertigo, dizziness, hemoptysis, hematemesis, and in the worse case coma.  Liver in Oriental Medicine is associated often with stress due to anger or aggression.


1.    The distribution of defensive Qi (Wei Qi) is dependent on the function of what organ(s)?

a.      Spleen

b.      Uterus

c.       Gallbladder

d.      Lung

e.       Brain

     2.  The Chest Qi which can promote the                function of the Lung and Heart is              called?

a.      Yuan Qi (Primary Qi)

b.      Ying Qi (Nutrient Qi)

c.       Wei Qi (Defensive Qi)

d.      Zong Qi (Pectoral Qi)

e.       None of the above.

      3.   Qi circulating within the vessels which                can transform into blood is called?

a.      Ying Qi (Nutrient Qi)

b.      Xin Qi (Heart Qi)

c.       Yuan Qi

d.      Zong Qi

e.       Wei Qi 

    4.   Pectoral Qi

a.      Accumulates in the Chest

b.      Ascend to the throat

c.       Dominates respiration

d.      Promotes the heart function

e.       All of the above.

      5.   Pectoral Qi is formed from?

a.      The essential Qi of water and food

b.      The clear Qi inhaled by the lung

c.       Nutritive Qi

d.      Defensive Qi

e.       A and B

      6.   Acquired Qi includes

a.      Zong Qi

b.      Wei Qi

c.       Ying Qi

d.      Yuan Qi

e.       A, B, C

     7.  Congenital Qi includes

a.      Yuan Qi

b.      Zong Qi

c.       Ying Qi

d.      Wei Qi

e.       Rebellious Qi

        8.  Ying Qi functions include

a.      Produce Blood

b.      Circulate with Blood

c.       Control respiration

d.      Promote water metabolism

e.       A and B 

9.      Qi functions include

a.      Promoting

b.      Warming

c.       Defending

d.      Checking

e.       All of the above

     10.  Wei Qi functions to

a.    Warm the organs

b.    Defend the body surface

c.    Control opening and closing of      pores

d.     Moisten skin and hair

e.      All of the above.



     Of course today we know that Temperature regulation in the body is an integration of the autonomic nervous system, which control heat loss, and the somatic mechanisms that govern heat production, posture, and behavior, all under control by the hypothalamus.  Clark et al., 1939 found that experimental lesion in the rostral portion caused severe fever and subsequent death in laboratory animals.  Jarokys and Jreudk (1910), and Ranson (1936 to 1937) discovered that most of the reactions needed for temperature regulation could be brought into play by electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus save shivering, which could not be induced by electrical stimulus.  Other experiments had observations by use of implanted thermodes in unanesthetized animals, demonstrating that this region was indeed sensitive to cooling as well as heating.  Benzinger in 1969 called the hypothalamic system and its associated appropriate pathways the thermostat for the rest of the body in a reciprocal relationship as the body is cooled when the hypothalamus was too warm and the body warmed when the hypothalamus was too cool.  Specifically the hypothalamus mediates two mechanisms coordinating the sympathetic and parasympathic systems affecting widespread physical and chemical processes in the regulation of body temperature.  One is the dissipation of heat and the other with its production and conservation.   The anterior hypothalamus is sensitive to increases in blood temperature, and sets in motion the mechanisms for dissipating “excess heat” (page 492 C).  In mankind this consists mainly of profuse sweating and vasodilatation of the cutaneous blood vessels.  These actions permit the rapid elimination of heat by convection and radiation from the surface of the engorged blood vessels, and by the evaporation of sweat.  It has been firmly established that lesions involving the anterior part of the hypothalamus abolish the neural control of mechanisms concerned with the dissipation of heat and result in hyperthermia.  Thus tumors in, or near, the anterior hypothalamus results in hyperthermia (hyperpyrexia).   Conditions of decreasing body temperature or cooling is relative to the posterior hypothalamus.  This protects the body for the conservation and increased production of heat when necessary.  The cutaneous blood vessels are constricted and sweat secretion ceases, so that heat loss is reduced.  Simultaneously there is augmentation of visceral activities, and the somatic muscles exhibit shivering.  All these activities tremendously increase the processes of oxidation, with a consequent production and conservation of heat.  It has been firmly established that bilateral lesions in the posterior regions of the hypothalamus usually produce a condition in which the body temperature varies with the environment (poikilothermia).  This is because all descending pathways concerned with both the conservation and dissipation of heat would be distorted due to obstructed impulse.        

     Harmony could not be defined any better than the following description of these systems in Carpenter Human Neuroanatomy “These two intrinsically antagonistic mechanisms do not function independently but are continually inter-related and balanced against each other to meet the changing needs of the body; the coordinated responses always are directed to the maintenance of a constant and optimum temperature.”      

      Adrenal glands and the thyroid also play interconnected significant roles in the unconscious regulation of body temperature.  These calorigenic effects of the secretions of these glands are well known.  Stability of body temperature varies with the size of the body, external work conditions and the amount of metabolic energy results in heat.  For example, when one undertakes strenuous physical exertion, more than three-quarters of the increased metabolism appears as heat within the body with the remainder is converted either to work or to heat in the external system.  Fever increased the metabolic rate by 13% for each degree rise in mean body temperature. 

by Dr. Scott Neff, DC, DABCO, MSOM, FFABS


© & TM 1998 American Academy for Justice Through Science. All rights reserved.

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