The INFOJUSTICE Journal Law Enforcement Icons and National Treasures


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     The War of 1812 demonstrated the man, the nation, our affirmation, mentor and tradition of the all American male icon that is representative of my book, Uncle Sam, came onto the scene.  By this “War of 1812” our young nation needed a national identity which had faded since our revolutionary war.  Uncle Sam was in fact born in Massachusetts, Samuel Wilson who later settled in the city of Troy, New York.  He was extremely well known locally as “Uncle Sam” and later became first the regions Uncle and eventually our nations Uncle.  Uncle Sam Wilson a natural US home born icon moved to Troy with Ebenezer Wilson his brother to found E & S Wilson and Co.  Being a natural born patriot he immediately sought out war contracts and acquired them in 1812.  Through his shipments solders around the nation and abroad developed the love of and appreciation for Uncle Sam’s notoriety.  For example during the war, the enemy often could literally ask their superiors “where’s the beef?” while American troops knew Uncle Sam’s beef came through.  He was the first great organizer of shipping.  Indeed the US army even today can be seen with small vehicles (jeeps) running the deliveries.  With Sam’s contract to supply beef to the Army, soldiers and residents alike associated the “US” on the sides of the barrels of rations for our troops with “Uncle Sam” who the nation knew was the supplier of meats and feed to the armed forces.   

     By 1813 the world-renowned legend of Uncle Sam was a common term in every household.  Soon the poplar figure of Samuel Wilson of Troy, New York appeared in the New York Gazette on May 12, 1830.  During the Civil War Uncle Sam’s cartoon became symbols of Abraham Lincoln with some similarity to Brother Jonathan.  However it was Abraham Lincoln’s beard which when added to Uncle Sam, brought many of the images used today finalizing in 1917 with the famous “I Want You” recruiting poster by James Montgomery Flagg.  Flagg made sure patriots had the conscious image of Uncle Sam in their hearts and minds.  This image remains in the minds of Americans even today.

     Although this examiner has touched on most Federal Law Enforcement entities in Chapter One the History of Law Enforcement, you will now go in depth to understand each entity individually. 

     The next step in our national evolution is a somber historical note.  In fact many believe there was a conspiracy to stop the formation of the Secret Service. An entity able to not only protect the Presidency, but bring security and investigations under the direct control of a President. 

     You now are aware of the fact that the morning of Honest Abe Lincoln's assignation, he signed into Law the Secret Services.  After the horrific assassination of the President, Congress within only a few months later in July 5, 1865 passed the Secret Service Act.  The motivation for the establishment of the Secret Service however was due to many factors.  Primarily it would become the protection of the President.  Never again, would a President go unguarded (Look what happened to poor President Kennedy-his choice however to ride in a convertible; i.e. Jimmy Carter walked to work!).   It must be understood that the heroism, courage, quality of work, loyalty of the Secret Service ranks with the FBI save the fact that the Secret Services Laboratories rank has the top forensic lab in the World.  Even today's FBI laboratories are not accredited although they initiated the accreditation policy. 

     The Secret Service was headquarted in Washington DC with initially eleven cities with field-operations sites.  The initial credentialing procedure was so secretive it eventually was replaced.  The only proof of Agents credentials was handwritten letters of appointment (much like the types of letter this examiner maintains today; do not believe in advertising).  They had no badges, no guns, no Billie clubs, but simply handcuffs, and training for stealth work.  The Treasury Department would simply send out a formal letter to United States Marshals and to all other Policing Entities the formation of the Secret Service, its functions and that the Agents were Protecting the President and investigating Counterfeiting.  Congress passed the Counterfeiting law of 1842.  Because of the Superlative Job the Agents were accomplishing and the very fact that stealth Agents were finding the counterfeit dollars in banks and other places were honest person worked it scarred these folks and a tremendous amount of anxiety developed in the civilian population.  Further the anxiety eventually caused roadblocks to cooperation with grass roots support in which no agency or bureau can function effectively.  Only through cooperation with the heroic men and women of America could success become a guarantee relative to National Security measures.  Picture how you would feel discovering clues of investigations and shadowy individuals.  Would you feel the handwritten credentials were someone impersonating an Agent or would cooperation come easily?  Thus, in 1873 the Secret Service distributed a distinctive five-pointed Silver Star with a lacework design similar to that, which would be found on our currency.  This was the beginning of a new Badge (unlike the 3,000-year-old Star of David design-Six sides) that clearly identified the Secret Service Agent.

     In 1871, an impersonator by the name of I.W. Raymond appeared at the San Francisco office and stated that he was a Secret Service agent.  The Agent in charge was able to ascertain that Raymond was appointed to handle the affairs in the California Area.  Raymond presented documents appearing to be from the State and Treasury Departments.  Raymond then asked for the keys to the office vault with all properties including any contraband evidence and any repots.  The Supervising Agent immediately telegraphed Washington with the immediate reply that Raymond was an impostor.  Raymond pleaded guilty and was sentenced to the state prison.  The distinctive New Design of the 5 star badge and printed credentials were subsequently issued to Agents of the Secret Service in 1873.  Today's agent carries a replica of the original badge with a commission card that bears their photograph and signature.  The Secret Service also must protect high-ranking foreign visitors (Prime ministers and heads of state).  The Secret Service has the jurisdiction to also extend protection to include our government officials on presidential mission to foreign countries because of unpredictable worldwide violence. 



      On June 22, 1870 because of allegations relative to European women being transported to the United States, the United States Attorney General hired some of the finest investigators this nation had.  Because of the facts found Representative Mann by virtue of his authority and with full force of the Congress worked on the "Mann Act" and established the "White Slave Traffic Act".

     However it was not until 1908 that then President Theodore ("Teddy the Rough Rider"-Hero of American History) Roosevelt recognized the success and further need by the Department of Justice to have in-house investigators. He thus asked his Attorney General Charles J. Bonaparte to organize the July 26, 1908 Bureau of Investigation.  Today this arm of the Department of Justice is now the largest and most widely known successful and distinguished law enforcement agencies in mankind's experiential existence. 

     In 1924 (as recorded in Chapter one) John Edgar Hoover was appointed Director of the Bureau (our first G-man) at the tender age of 29.  This was due to the fact that United States Attorney General Harlan Fiske Stone, was fed up with organized crime, and realizing the need for stealth.  A very special type of innovator extraordinaire.  J.E. Hoover made an immediate impact on American life.  Please realize that these were to be tough years, with the eminent depression and the importation of a Gangland from other countries, only truth much like oil in water would rise to the top.  So was named JE Hoover to be that protector of truth, justice and the ideals of the American Heritage.  After immediate success, with Hoover's G-men, it became apparent that a formal name for this great Law Enforcement institution be forthcoming.  On July 1, 1935, the name was created as the Federal Bureau of Investigation respected uniformly today as the FBI.   The honorable Director J.E. Hoover has set a legacy of unparraled ethics, and propriety, which lasts even through to our 21st century. 



     The following is a hierarchy of Protocol for the United States Federal Investigative Agencies.  This begins with the chief legal officer of the United States Government the Attorney General of the Department of Justice.  The DOJ is the Legal "Eagle" (one of our symbols of Americana) portion that is charged with the oversight of all rules and regulations as they are applied through the federal system.  The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the DOJ's long arm of the law charged with the government’s primary investigations, both criminal and security relative to any allegations of violations and/or violations under its jurisdiction of over 200 areas of law and American life.  Espionage, counterespionage, sabotage, subversive activities, forensic science or the recreation of a crime scene with whatever scientific method can bring such as DNA evidence, Tooth prints or teeth matching, (see the later chapter on Forensic Laboratory) and any violation of federal rules, regulations and laws which are not directly supervised by other federal Administrations or Agencies.

     One of the oldest and largest administrative bodies is the United States Department of the Treasury.  DOT has huge responsibilities.  As previously noted, the Secret Service agents have the unenviable task to protect the President of the United States, the Vice President, their families, the President-elect, the Vice President-elect, and declared presidential and vice-presidential candidates during campaigns.  Violation of counterfeiting and other laws are under the direct control of the Secret Service in the Treasury Department.  More commonly known is the Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) Bureau special investigations units and agents who's jurisdiction is over federal alcohol and tobacco tax laws as well as federal firearms laws and gun control laws, especially those which are imported.  These agents have special Intelligence to cover matters pertaining to federal income tax and gambling laws and to matters involving Internal Revenue laws and taxes.  They even have Custom patrol officers and inspectors who's jurisdiction is over smuggling, navigation laws and of course our U.S. Customs (this examiner has worked on several Billion Dollar Customs Cases where I brought in fraudulent products and services which affected the pacific and Atlantic rim).  We invariably were dependant on holding the contraband in customs as well as cooperation with Canada which was always forthcoming in this examiner’s experience; the stopped the frauds and won the cases. 

     The office that has the investigative responsibility regarding passport and visa frauds as well as violations involved in exporting personnel problems and munitions is the Department of State Office of Security.

     The organization, which has the authority to patrol US, borders to prevent illegal entrance of aliens and enforce the immigration and naturalization law of the United States is the Immigration and Naturalization Service.

     The United States Postal Inspectors have jurisdiction over a wide venue of laws and regulations.  Many people are shocked to find that the US Postal Inspectors were the first Law Enforcement Agencies to investigate Quackery.  Congress passed the Postal Act in 1829.  The Postal Act then enabled the Service to police with authority.  These inspectors had the ability to enforce Postal Laws, and eliminate Postal Fraud as well as the early snake oil salesmen.  Early snake oil salesman were very shocked to find that they were arrested outside the elderly widows home by the Postman after inciting her home address.  Even as late as 1982 one famous case was the breast enlargement device, which worked by the Venturi effect.  This device was attached to the sink and then placed over the female bosom.  As the water ran through the device suction was created and the allegation was that it would build a larger bosom.  Because this quack device was marketed through the mail, the Postal Authorities seized it and the culprits arrested.  Thus the Postal Inspectors investigate schemes to defraud, embezzlement of federal funds, the flow of mail, burglary and crime sin postal facilities, lotteries, obscene matter, and certain extortions such as threats against character and reputation.   



     The first national Food and Drug like-law came about in 1848 during the Mexican War. It banned the importation of adulterated drugs, a chronic public health problem that finally got Congressional attention. 

     The first broad bill had been introduced in 1879, although a decade passed before Congress displayed serious interest.  The first famous battle over foods and consumer safety in the Congress involving a pure food issue took place in 1886, pitting the reigning champion, butter, against a challenger, oleomargarine.   This debate between the defenders of a natural food and those of its alleged artificial substitute centered not only on matters of vested interest, but also pondered concerns about the public health, issues of governmental authority, and the myths in which were enshrined the meaning of the American experience.   In this particular case, Butter won, and oleomargarine was taxed and placed under other restraints that persisted on the Federal level until 1950.  

     These types of themes re-echoed in Congressional chambers as Senate and House later debated broader bills to control food and drugs in interstate commerce.   In fact the Anti-Fraud in health issues was worded in a Senate report in 1890, "it has only been since the great opportunity for fraud provided by modern science ... that the sophistication of articles of commerce has reached its present height."

     One June 30, 1906, a broiling day in Washington, President Theodore Roosevelt went to the Capitol to sign into law nearly a hundred bills hurried through the Congress as its session came to an end. Among them was one passed the day before by both Senate and House in a form agreed to in conference committee, the Food and Drugs Act.

     Once again public opinion was aroused by a shocking disclosure -- the deaths of more than 100 people from a poisonous "elixir of sulfanilamide." On June 25, 1938, President Roosevelt signed the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

     Many compromises had to be made to secure passage, but still the new law was a major improvement.   The following is a list of a few of some 40 substantive changes, which altered the law to fit the new conditions.  

·        Drug manufacturers were required to provide scientific proof that new products could be safely used before putting them on the market.

·     Cosmetics and therapeutic devices were regulated, for the first time.

·     Proof of fraud was no longer required to stop false claims for drugs.

·     Addition of poisonous substances to foods was prohibited except where unavoidable or required in production. Safe tolerances were authorized for residues of such substances, for example pesticides.

·     Specific authority was provided for factory inspections.

·     Food standards were required to be set up when needed "to promote honesty and fair dealing in the interest of consumers."

·     Federal court injunctions against violations were added to the previous legal remedies of product seizures and criminal prosecutions.  

     The new law, and World War II, greatly expanded FDA's workload. Wartime demands had stimulated the development of new "wonder drugs," especially the antibiotics, which were made subject to FDA testing beginning with penicillin in 1945 three amendments that fundamentally changed the character of the U.S. food and drug law: the Pesticide Amendment (1954), the Food Additives Amendment (1958), and the Color Additive Amendments (1960).  

     With these laws on the books, it could be said for the first time that no substance can legally be introduced into the U.S. food supply unless there has been a prior determination that it is safe. By requiring the manufacturers to do the research, a problem of unmanageable size was made manageable. Preventing violations through premarket clearance gave consumers immeasurably better protection than merely prosecuting the few violations, which could be proved by investigating after injuries were reported.

     Very significant was a proviso in the food and color additive laws that no additive could be deemed safe (or given FDA approval) if found to cause cancer in man or experimental animals. Known as the "Delaney Clause," the section was initially opposed by FDA and scientists who agreed need not necessarily ban that an additive used at very low levels because it may cause cancer at high levels. Proponents justified the clause on the basis that cancer experts have not been able to determine a safe level for any carcinogen.

     Then in 1959 a FDA recall of cranberries contaminated by the weed killer aminotriazole proved this point. Notwithstanding publicity critical of FDA, this action has beneficial results, particularly in convincing farmers that pesticides must be used with care.

     There were many revisions to the laws over the years.  However from 1982-1993 your author, Ghost wrote many Food Labeling Consumer Protection issues which were incorporated as law by USFDA.  Not withstanding USFDA needs our support.  Trillions of dollars can be made on Food fraud as it is so subtle.  FDA needs increased funding for policing and policymaking. 



      The Central Intelligence Agency was established in 1947 under the jurisdiction of the National Security Council to meet the need for a peacetime centralized intelligence organization.  The original intent of the Agency however was under the Name of the OSS for the sole purpose of obtaining information, decoding World War II messages, infiltrating Axis nations, aiding the underground and to help American Prisoners of War Escape.  The old OSS had several divisions.  These were the Support Division, Research Division, Planning as well as Intelligence. 

     The Support section included responsibility for equipment, logistics, security therein, and communications.  Secret codes were the development of this division.

     The Research Division provides technical intelligence such as expert assessments made of foreign progress in science, technology, and new war weapons.

     The Planning Division was responsible for all foreign special operations such as the collection of counterintelligence data and information from informants as well as from other sources developed in foreign lands. 

     However, after 1947 it was no longer connected with the Military and as a non-military agency has been the most misunderstood, over-dramatized, with fictional fantasies written about it from fiction writers, to anyone who could pick up a pen and write a conspiracy theory based on half-truths, concocted hogwash and plain old malarkey.  The CIA simply met the need for a peacetime agency to coordinate the intelligence activities of various government departments and to evaluate and distribute intelligence relating to national security.  In fact, by 1998 the FBI had taken over as the official Law Enforcement Agencies relative to actives outside of the United States. 

     Subsequent to 911, CIA has become the scapegoat for and will continue to serve the will and needs of the politicians who have shaped the outcomes which we receive.  Why?  Absent understanding its true status at 911, subsequent CIA was held up to the world as the old pre 1998 Agency which it was not.  Thus, it was also inappropriate for anyone to make claims of intelligence until the time the Agency had been made whole again.  Which it has not, and it's balanced presentation of information was never revealed to the American people.  It has become the field for handpicked data rather than the American people seeing all the presenting data.  And in lieu of simply rebuilding a great structure fully equipped for human Intel visa vie its vast library within CIA, a continual merry-go round of who should be honored next to lead CIA rather than someone who most humbly receives the honor and privilege to serve CIA, and the American people, has been doctrine. 

    The American people again need CIA to become that which it was during WWII yet even better, now working with NSA, FBI, and so forth, as only congressional mandates, funding authorizations, and further rule making can achieve.  Rather than believe that a who's who of folks who have warn CIA as an award rather than a duty can make "it" all that it can be, it is through legislative rule making and congressional order which CIA can become the "SPY-Agency" we need.  It is up to our elected officials to create the mechanisms for the results we receive and will receive.  Let the focus create the detail for easy identification and make all of CIA, not just the director, empowered congressionally to do that which needs be done. ©



     The Legislative branch of the House and Senate have the power to develop investigative committees on national problems relative to crime, juvenile delinquency, internal security, and other matters of national security.  The General Accounting Office investigates matters relating to receipt, disbursement, and application of public funds.

     The following agencies also have law enforcement jobs and investigators.  The Atomic Energy Commission, Defense Intelligence Agency, Naval Intelligence Command, National Security Agency, U.S. Air Force Security Service and the 1127th U.S.A.F. Field Actives Group.  For employment contact these Offices directly.

"The most acceptable service to God is doing good to man" Ben Franklin


© & TM 1998 American Academy for Justice Through Science. All rights reserved.

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